We're sorry, but we're unable to process your login. Please try again.
We're sorry, you are not authorized to access this site. Please contact your local Merck representative if you have any inquiries.
This page requires you to register for an account with Merck. Please login with your Merck account credentials below, or register for a new account.

Log in with Merck
{* #signInForm *}
{* signInEmailAddress *}
{* currentPassword *}
{* captcha *}
{* /signInForm *}

Well-characterized safety and tolerability profile

The safety and tolerability of MAVENCLAD were studied in CLARITY.1


Safety and tolerability with MAVENCLAD in CLARITY

The most common (>20%) adverse reactions reported in CLARITY are upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and lymphopenia.1

Chart of MAVENCLAD® adverse reactions

Discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions

In the pivotal trial, 3.5% of patients receiving MAVENCLAD discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions vs 2.1% of patients receiving placebo.2

Trial completion

92% of patients treated with MAVENCLAD completed the full 96 weeks of the study vs 87% of patients receiving placebo.1

No cases of PML have been reported in up to 8 years of safety follow-up with MS patients treated with MAVENCLAD1

In patients treated with parenteral cladribine for oncologic indications, cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) have been reported in the postmarketing setting.

No increased risk of secondary autoimmune diseases vs placebo1,3,4

In the all-exposed cohort, the incidence of autoimmune diseases was slightly lower in the cladribine group (0.58 events per 100 patient-years) than in the placebo group (0.73 events per 100 patient-years).

CLARITY: CLAdRIbine Tablets treating multiple sclerosis orallY.


Lymphopenia

MAVENCLAD causes a dose-dependent reduction in lymphocyte count. In clinical studies, 87% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients experienced lymphopenia. The lowest absolute lymphocyte counts occurred approximately 2 to 3 months after the start of each treatment course and were lower with the second treatment course.1

In patients treated with MAVENCLAD 3.5 mg/kg as monotherapy:

  • Lymphopenia observed was mostly mild to moderate5
  • The majority (73%) of patients who experienced lymphopenia experienced Grade 1 or 21
  • 26% of patients experienced Grade 3, and only 1% experienced Grade 41
  • 2% of clinical study patients had lymphocyte counts less than 500 cells/μL (severe lymphopenia, Grade 3 or higher) at the end of the second treatment course1
  • The median duration of severe lymphopenia was 6.0 weeks to improvement to Grade ≤2 and 28.1 weeks to recovery to Grade ≤13

The incidence of lymphopenia <500 cells/μL was higher in patients who had used drugs to treat relapsing forms of MS prior to study entry (32.1%), compared to those with no prior use of these drugs (23.8%).1
Lymphocytes must be within normal limits before initiating the first treatment course and at least 800 cells/μL before initiating the second treatment course. If necessary, delay the second treatment course for up to 6 months to allow for recovery of lymphocytes to at least 800 cells/μL. If this recovery takes more than 6 months, the patient should not receive further treatment with MAVENCLAD.1


Infections1

Infections occurred in 49% of patients on MAVENCLAD compared to 44% on placebo. The most frequent serious infections in MAVENCLAD patients included herpes zoster and pyelonephritis.

  • HIV infection, active tuberculosis, and active hepatitis must be excluded before initiating MAVENCLAD
  • Patients should also be screened for latent infections, particularly tuberculosis and hepatitis B and C, before treatment initiation in both treatment years
  • Three of 1,976 (0.2%) cladribine-treated patients in the clinical program developed tuberculosis. All 3 cases occurred in regions where tuberculosis is endemic. One case of tuberculosis was fatal, and 2 cases resolved with treatment
  • 6% of patients on MAVENCLAD developed a herpes viral infection compared to 2% on placebo
  • Patients who are antibody-negative to varicella zoster virus should be vaccinated prior to treatment. Administer live-attenuated or live vaccines at least 4 to 6 weeks prior to starting MAVENCLAD 

Risk of malignancy and cases in MAVENCLAD patients

Treatment with MAVENCLAD may increase the risk of malignancy. MAVENCLAD is contraindicated in patients with current malignancy.1

Malignancy cases in MAVENCLAD patients included metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, malignant melanoma (2 cases), and ovarian cancer, compared to malignancy cases in placebo patients, all of which were curable by surgical resection (basal cell carcinoma, cervical carcinoma in situ [2 cases]).1

There were no cases of hematological or lymphoproliferative cancers in the pooled safety dataset.3

Chart displaying types of malignancies reported in the MAVENCLAD® clinical trials

Malignancy rates in the MAVENCLAD clinical program

Treatment with MAVENCLAD may increase the risk of malignancy.1 In controlled and extension clinical studies worldwide, malignancies occurred more frequently in MAVENCLAD-treated patients [10 events in 3,754 patient-years (0.27 events per 100 patient-years)], compared to placebo patients [3 events in 2,275 patient-years (0.13 events per 100 patient-years)].1

Chart of malignancy events per 100 patient-years

Malignancy rates were higher in US clinical study patients than the rest of the world (4 events in 189 patient-years [2.21 events per 100 patient-years], compared to 0 events in US placebo patients). However, the US results were based on a limited amount of patient data.1

AESI: adverse events of special interest; PY: patient-years.


Malignancy rate over time

The occurrence of malignancies over time was further assessed.8 This analysis showed no increase over time in the adjusted malignancy incidence rate for MAVENCLAD for years 1 to 4 and years 5 to 8+.3*

Malignancy rates in years 1-4 and 5-8+3

MAVENCLAD® patients malignancy rates
MAVENCLAD® patients malignancy rates; years 5-8+
MAVENCLAD® patients malignancy rates; years 1-8+

The analysis is based on a cohort of patients who were treated with MAVENCLAD over 2 years and followed without further dosing. The results are not dispositive and should be treated with caution.  An observational study to assess the long-term risk of malignancy is being conducted.3,9 

MAVENCLAD is a purine antimetabolite that interferes with DNA synthesis and repair.1

MAVENCLAD® patients malignancy

In clinical studies, patients who received additional MAVENCLAD treatment within 2 years after the first 2 treatment courses had an increased incidence of malignancy (7 events in 790 patient-years [0.91 events per 100 patient-years] calculated from the start of cladribine treatment in year 3). The risk of malignancy with reinitiating MAVENCLAD more than 2 years after the completion of 2 treatment courses has not been studied.1

*Company-sponsored analysis.

AESI: adverse events of special interest; PY: patient-years.


Pregnancy and teratogenicity risk 1

MAVENCLAD may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. MAVENCLAD is contraindicated for use in pregnant women and in women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception.

In females of reproductive potential, pregnancy should be excluded before the initiation of each treatment course of MAVENCLAD and prevented by the use of effective contraception during MAVENCLAD dosing and for at least 6 months after the last dose of each treatment course. Women who become pregnant during treatment with MAVENCLAD should discontinue treatment.


Cladribine in animal studies1

There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with use of MAVENCLAD in pregnant women.

In preclinical studies:

  • Cladribine was embryolethal when administered to pregnant mice and produced malformations in mice and rabbits. The observed developmental effects are consistent with the effects of cladribine on DNA. The amount of cladribine administered to mice was 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3 mg/kg/d, and the amount administered to rabbits was 0, 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg/d*
  • When cladribine was administered by subcutaneous injection to male mice prior to and during mating to untreated females, no effects on fertility were observed. However, an increase in non-motile sperm was observed at the highest dose tested. The amount of cladribine administered to male mice was 0, 1, 5, 10, or 30 mg/kg/d*

*The approved dose of MAVENCLAD is a cumulative dose of 3.5 mg/kg over 2 years.


Contraception1

  • Effective contraception should be used by females and males during MAVENCLAD dosing and up to 6 months after the last dose in each treatment course
  • Women using systemically acting hormonal contraceptives should add a barrier method during MAVENCLAD dosing and for at least 4 weeks after the last dose in each treatment course
  • Because cladribine interferes with DNA synthesis, adverse effects on human gametogenesis can be expected
  • Male patients of reproductive potential should take precautions to prevent pregnancy of their partner during MAVENCLAD dosing and for at least 6 months after the last dose in each treatment course
  • Patients taking MAVENCLAD can consider pregnancy 6 months after the last dose
Timeline of when to use effective contraception for reproductive planning

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: MALIGNANCIES and RISK OF TERATOGENICITY

  • Treatment with MAVENCLAD may increase the risk of malignancy. MAVENCLAD is contraindicated in patients with current malignancy. In patients with prior malignancy or with increased risk of malignancy, evaluate the benefits and risks of the use of MAVENCLAD on an individual patient basis. Follow standard cancer screening guidelines in patients treated with MAVENCLAD
  • MAVENCLAD is contraindicated for use in pregnant women and in women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception because of the potential for fetal harm. Malformations and embryolethality occurred in animals. Exclude pregnancy before the start of treatment with MAVENCLAD in females of reproductive potential. Advise females and males of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during MAVENCLAD dosing and for 6 months after the last dose in each treatment course. Stop MAVENCLAD if the patient becomes pregnant

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Patients with current malignancy.
  • Pregnant women, and women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception during and for 6 months after the last dose in each treatment course. May cause fetal harm.
  • Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Patients with active chronic infections (e.g., hepatitis or tuberculosis).
  • Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to cladribine.
  • Women intending to breastfeed while taking MAVENCLAD tablets and for 10 days after the last dose.

 

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Malignancies: Treatment with MAVENCLAD may increase the risk of malignancy. After the completion of 2 treatment courses, do not administer additional MAVENCLAD treatment during the next 2 years. The risk of malignancy with reinitiating MAVENCLAD more than 2 years after the completion of 2 treatment courses has not been studied. Follow standard cancer screening guidelines in patients treated with MAVENCLAD.
  • Risk of Teratogenicity: MAVENCLAD may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. In females of reproductive potential, exclude pregnancy before initiation of each treatment course of MAVENCLAD and prevent by the use of effective contraception during MAVENCLAD dosing and for at least 6 months after the last dose of each treatment course. Women who become pregnant during treatment with MAVENCLAD should discontinue treatment.
  • Lymphopenia: MAVENCLAD causes a dose-dependent reduction in lymphocyte count. In clinical studies, 87% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients experienced lymphopenia. The lowest absolute lymphocyte counts occurred approximately 2 to 3 months after the start of each treatment course and were lower with each additional treatment course. Concomitant use of MAVENCLAD with hematotoxic drugs may increase the risk of adverse reactions because of the additive hematological effects. Monitor lymphocyte counts before and during treatment, periodically thereafter, and when clinically indicated.
  • Infections: MAVENCLAD can reduce the body's immune defense and may increase the likelihood of infections. Infections occurred in 49% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients compared to 44% of patients treated with placebo in clinical studies. The most frequent serious infections included herpes zoster and pyelonephritis. Single fatal cases of tuberculosis and fulminant hepatitis B were reported in the clinical program. Administer live-attenuated or live vaccines at least 4 to 6 weeks prior to starting MAVENCLAD. Screen patients for latent infections; consider delaying treatment until infection is fully controlled. Vaccinate patients antibody-negative to varicella zoster virus prior to treatment. Administer anti-herpes prophylaxis in patients with lymphocyte counts less than 200 cells per microliter. Monitor for infections. In patients treated with parenteral cladribine for oncologic indications, cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) have been reported. No case of PML has been reported in clinical studies of cladribine in patients with MS.
  • Hematologic Toxicity: In addition to lymphopenia, decreases in other blood cells and hematological parameters have been reported with MAVENCLAD in clinical studies. In general, mild to moderate decreases in neutrophil counts, hemoglobin levels, and platelet counts were observed. Severe decreases in neutrophil counts were observed in 3.6% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients, compared to 2.8% of placebo patients. Obtain complete blood count (CBC) with differential including lymphocyte count before and during treatment, periodically thereafter, and when clinically indicated.
  • Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease With Blood Transfusions: Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease has been observed rarely after transfusion of nonirradiated blood in patients treated with cladribine for non-MS treatment indications.
  • Liver Injury: In clinical studies, 0.3% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients had liver injury (serious or causing treatment discontinuation) compared to 0 placebo patients. Obtain serum aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels prior to treatment. Discontinue if clinically significant injury is suspected.
  • Hypersensitivity: In clinical studies, 11% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients had hypersensitivity reactions, compared to 7% of placebo patients. Hypersensitivity reactions that were serious and/or led to discontinuation of MAVENCLAD, occurred in 0.5% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients, compared to 0.1% of placebo patients. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue MAVENCLAD therapy. Do not use MAVENCLAD in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to cladribine.
  • Cardiac Failure: In clinical studies, one MAVENCLAD-treated patient experienced life-threatening acute cardiac failure with myocarditis, which improved after approximately one week. Cases of cardiac failure have also been reported with parenteral cladribine used for treatment indications other than multiple sclerosis. 

Adverse Reactions: The most common adverse reactions with an incidence of >20% for MAVENCLAD are upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and lymphopenia.

Drug Interactions/Concomitant Medication: Concomitant use of MAVENCLAD with immunosuppressive or myelosuppressive drugs and some immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., interferon beta) is not recommended and may increase the risk of adverse reactions. Acute short-term therapy with corticosteroids can be administered.

Avoid concomitant use of certain antiviral and antiretroviral drugs. Avoid concomitant use of BCRP or ENT/CNT inhibitors as they may alter bioavailability of MAVENCLAD.

Use in Specific Populations: Studies have not been performed in pediatric or elderly patients, pregnant or breastfeeding women. Use in patients with moderate to severe renal or hepatic impairment is not recommended.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including boxed WARNING for additional information.

INDICATION

MAVENCLAD® (cladribine) tablets is indicated for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease, in adults. Because of its safety profile, use of MAVENCLAD is generally recommended for patients who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, an alternate drug indicated for the treatment of MS.

Limitations of Use: MAVENCLAD is not recommended for use in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) because of its safety profile.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

WARNING: MALIGNANCIES and RISK OF TERATOGENICITY

  • Treatment with MAVENCLAD may increase the risk of malignancy. MAVENCLAD is contraindicated in patients with current malignancy. In patients with prior malignancy or with increased risk of malignancy, evaluate the benefits and risks of the use of MAVENCLAD on an individual patient basis. Follow standard cancer screening guidelines in patients treated with MAVENCLAD
  • MAVENCLAD is contraindicated for use in pregnant women and in women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception because of the potential for fetal harm. Malformations and embryolethality occurred in animals. Exclude pregnancy before the start of treatment with MAVENCLAD in females of reproductive potential. Advise females and males of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during MAVENCLAD dosing and for 6 months after the last dose in each treatment course. Stop MAVENCLAD if the patient becomes pregnant

 

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Patients with current malignancy.
  • Pregnant women, and women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception during and for 6 months after the last dose in each treatment course. May cause fetal harm.
  • Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Patients with active chronic infections (e.g., hepatitis or tuberculosis).
  • Patients with a history of hypersensitivity to cladribine.
  • Women intending to breastfeed while taking MAVENCLAD tablets and for 10 days after the last dose.

 

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Malignancies: Treatment with MAVENCLAD may increase the risk of malignancy. After the completion of 2 treatment courses, do not administer additional MAVENCLAD treatment during the next 2 years. The risk of malignancy with reinitiating MAVENCLAD more than 2 years after the completion of 2 treatment courses has not been studied. Follow standard cancer screening guidelines in patients treated with MAVENCLAD.
  • Risk of Teratogenicity: MAVENCLAD may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. In females of reproductive potential, exclude pregnancy before initiation of each treatment course of MAVENCLAD and prevent by the use of effective contraception during MAVENCLAD dosing and for at least 6 months after the last dose of each treatment course. Women who become pregnant during treatment with MAVENCLAD should discontinue treatment.
  • Lymphopenia: MAVENCLAD causes a dose-dependent reduction in lymphocyte count. In clinical studies, 87% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients experienced lymphopenia. The lowest absolute lymphocyte counts occurred approximately 2 to 3 months after the start of each treatment course and were lower with each additional treatment course. Concomitant use of MAVENCLAD with hematotoxic drugs may increase the risk of adverse reactions because of the additive hematological effects. Monitor lymphocyte counts before and during treatment, periodically thereafter, and when clinically indicated.
  • Infections: MAVENCLAD can reduce the body's immune defense and may increase the likelihood of infections. Infections occurred in 49% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients compared to 44% of patients treated with placebo in clinical studies. The most frequent serious infections included herpes zoster and pyelonephritis. Single fatal cases of tuberculosis and fulminant hepatitis B were reported in the clinical program. Administer live-attenuated or live vaccines at least 4 to 6 weeks prior to starting MAVENCLAD. Screen patients for latent infections; consider delaying treatment until infection is fully controlled. Vaccinate patients antibody-negative to varicella zoster virus prior to treatment. Administer anti-herpes prophylaxis in patients with lymphocyte counts less than 200 cells per microliter. Monitor for infections. In patients treated with parenteral cladribine for oncologic indications, cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) have been reported. No case of PML has been reported in clinical studies of cladribine in patients with MS.
  • Hematologic Toxicity: In addition to lymphopenia, decreases in other blood cells and hematological parameters have been reported with MAVENCLAD in clinical studies. In general, mild to moderate decreases in neutrophil counts, hemoglobin levels, and platelet counts were observed. Severe decreases in neutrophil counts were observed in 3.6% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients, compared to 2.8% of placebo patients. Obtain complete blood count (CBC) with differential including lymphocyte count before and during treatment, periodically thereafter, and when clinically indicated.
  • Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease With Blood Transfusions: Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease has been observed rarely after transfusion of nonirradiated blood in patients treated with cladribine for non-MS treatment indications.
  • Liver Injury: In clinical studies, 0.3% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients had liver injury (serious or causing treatment discontinuation) compared to 0 placebo patients. Obtain serum aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels prior to treatment. Discontinue if clinically significant injury is suspected.
  • Hypersensitivity: In clinical studies, 11% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients had hypersensitivity reactions, compared to 7% of placebo patients. Hypersensitivity reactions that were serious and/or led to discontinuation of MAVENCLAD, occurred in 0.5% of MAVENCLAD-treated patients, compared to 0.1% of placebo patients. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue MAVENCLAD therapy. Do not use MAVENCLAD in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to cladribine.
  • Cardiac Failure: In clinical studies, one MAVENCLAD-treated patient experienced life-threatening acute cardiac failure with myocarditis, which improved after approximately one week. Cases of cardiac failure have also been reported with parenteral cladribine used for treatment indications other than multiple sclerosis. 

Adverse Reactions: The most common adverse reactions with an incidence of >20% for MAVENCLAD are upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and lymphopenia.

Drug Interactions/Concomitant Medication: Concomitant use of MAVENCLAD with immunosuppressive or myelosuppressive drugs and some immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., interferon beta) is not recommended and may increase the risk of adverse reactions. Acute short-term therapy with corticosteroids can be administered.

Avoid concomitant use of certain antiviral and antiretroviral drugs. Avoid concomitant use of BCRP or ENT/CNT inhibitors as they may alter bioavailability of MAVENCLAD.

Use in Specific Populations: Studies have not been performed in pediatric or elderly patients, pregnant or breastfeeding women. Use in patients with moderate to severe renal or hepatic impairment is not recommended.

Please see the full Prescribing Information, including boxed WARNING for additional information.

Help us direct you to the right place by selecting one of the following options:

I'm a Healthcare Professional

The content on this website is intended for U.S. Healthcare Professionals. By entering this website, you confirm you are a U.S. Healthcare Professional.

 

I'm NOT a Healthcare Professional

The content on this website is intended for U.S. Healthcare Professionals only. For more information click CONTINUE to visit the consumer website. 

CONTINUE